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Title Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1877. Volume 1. Eastern, Australian and Miscellaneous Colonies
Date 2 Jan 1877 - 15 Feb 1878
Document Type Correspondence; Manuscript
Reference CO 384/113
Library / Archive The National Archives
Collection Name War and Colonial Department and Colonial Office: Emigration Original Correspondence.
Description Despatches from Australia, Mauritius, Hong Kong and Natal regarding the living and working conditions of Indian and Chinese labourers, the movement of indentured workers around the Colonies, and general administration, such as staff appointments and finance. Included are many letters and reports pertaining to legislation around the better treatment of immigrant labourers.
Series Description This series contains correspondence relating to British settlement in North America and Australasia, and to Indian indentured labour in the West Indies. Until 1857 it consists of domestic letters alone. The series then ceases and is not resumed until 1872.
Biographical Note / History A Colonial Land and Emigration Commission was created in 1840 to undertake the duties of two earlier and overlapping authorities under the supervision of the secretary of state: the Colonisation Commissioners for South Australia and the Agent General for Emigration. In 1855 it became the Emigration Commission. The commission's powers were gradually given up to the larger colonies as they obtained self-government, and after 1873 it was responsible only for controlling the importation of Indian labour into sugar-producing colonies. It was abolished in 1878 and an Emigration Department was then set up in the Colonial Office. This department was merged with the General Department in 1894, and abolished altogether in 1896.
Theme(s) Arrivals: Ports and Early Experiences; Religion, Ethnic Identity and Community Relations; Politics, Legislation and Governance
Country (from) Great Britain; Mauritius; India; Sri Lanka; Brazil; Réunion; Singapore; China; Thailand; United States of America; Australia; Philippines; Canada; Indonesia; Peru; Fiji; British Guiana; Mozambique; South Africa; Japan; Malaysia; Burma; Vietnam
Country (to) Mauritius; India; Sri Lanka; Brazil; Réunion; Singapore; China; Thailand; United States of America; Australia; Malaysia; Philippines; Canada; Indonesia; Peru; Fiji; British Guiana; Mozambique; South Africa
Places Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Delhi, Madras, Pondicherry, Bombay, India; Queensland, Victoria, Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia; Bangkok, Thailand; San Francisco, Portland, Oregon, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States; Manila, Philippines; Vancouver, Canada; Acheen, Amoy, Hainan, China; Falcq, Mauritius; Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town, South Africa; Malacca, Penang, Sarawak, Malaysia; Denedin, New Zealand; Sumatra, Indonesia
Ports Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong; Port Louis, Mauritius; Natal, South Africa; Calcutta, India; Callao, Peru; Hong Kong, China
Nationality English; Indian; Dutch; Chinese; Polynesian; Creole; Siamese; Spanish; American
Ships Latona; Jean Pierre; Sussex; Winchester; Middlesex; St Kilda; Merchantman; Edwin Fox; Umvoti; Do; Illovo; Catherine Marie; Labourdonnais; Touareg; Akbar; Canada; Allum Shier; Shah Jehan; Sea Star; Arundel; Henriette; Lalla Rookh; Actoea; Godavery; Otter; Agamemnon; Argyll; Hindustan; Singapore; Mecca; Fleurs Castle; Esmeralda; Rajanathanuhar; Gaelic; Bellona; Antenor; Fu Yen; Sumatra; Carisbrooke; Zamboanga; Ceylon; Caucus; Obed Baxter; Somerset; Lycemoon; City of Peking; Penguin; Travancore; Brisbane; Anchises; Pardo; Elgin; Cheang Hock Kian; Taboadora; Glenfalloch; Montgomeryshire; Matura; Oceanic; Yorkshire; Edward May; Ajax; Normandy; Galatea; Dencalion; Danube; Bowen; Alaska; Salvadora; Killarney; Belgic; Priam; Geeling; Flintshire; Ocean; Thales; Great Republic; Wailaee; Anglo Saxon; Leyte; Wasli; Niger; Barven; Penedo; Namoa; Gloucester; City of Tokio; Arratoon Apcar; Altona; Menelaus; Patrocles; Edward James; Nestor; Ganga; Gorden Castle; Dianea; City of Tohir; Garibalou; Braemar Castle; Francois I; Achilles; Stentor; Alden Besse; Zambesi; Madagascar; Galley of Lorne; Cyphrenes; Cairnsmuir; State of Louisiana; Hwai Yuen; London Castle; Hankow; Viking; Khira; Anchises; Venice; Garibaldi; Japan; Gradshill; Ulyssess; Ruick; Denealion; Sale; Glaneno; Kashgar; Emry; Glaucus; Lombardy; Feronia; Gleneagles; How Sang; Argentino; Candia; Albay; Huai Yuen; Holyrood; Dale; Nankin; Cathay; Atlanta; Amboto; Adia; Mikado; Clemeneia; Beau Bois; Mon Reve; Constance; Belle Vue; China; Spartan; Pearl; Mirzapore; Glenroy; Mariveles; Rapid; Golden Horn; Shanton
People Lord Carnarvon (Herbert, Henry Howard Molyneux); Lord Kimberley (Wodehouse, John); Phayre, Sir Arthur Purves; Hennessy, Sir John Pope; ; Ommanney, Sir Montagu Frederick
Keywords Coolies, health, labour, hospital, death, sickness, emigration returns, mortality rate, rations, wages, crimping, corvée, Protector of Emigrants, anti-assisted labourers, plantation conditions
Language English
Document(s) linked to Emigration (and Coolie Immigration) 1877. Volume 2. Despatches: West Indies
Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1877. Volume 3. Despatches: West Indies
Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1877. Volume 4. Offices and Individuals
Copyright Crown Copyright documents © are reproduced by permission of The National Archives London, UK