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Title Entry-Books of Correspondence: Letters to Emigration Agents, Colonial Secretaries, etc. India, West Indies, China, 1865-1869
Date 24 Jan 1865 - 16 Feb 1869
Document Type Correspondence
Reference CO 386/136
Library / Archive The National Archives
Collection Name Colonial Office: Land and Emigration Commission, etc.
Description Letters refer specifically to 'coolie' ships and emigrants travelling from Madras to Mauritius and Natal. Surgeon appointed to work on board these ships, general treatment of indentured labourers and the inferior clothing issued to them are also remarked upon. An index is featured at the back, detailing letters sent by colony.
Series Description This series contains original correspondence, entry books and registers of the Agent General for Emigration, the South Australian Commissioners and the Land and Emigration Commission. Amongst the miscellaneous contents are registers of births and deaths of emigrants at sea 1854-1869, lists of ships chartered 1847-1875, registers of surgeons appointed 1854-1894, and volumes of The Colonial Gazette 1838-1842.
Biographical Note / History A Colonial Land and Emigration Commission was created in 1840 to undertake the duties of two earlier and overlapping authorities which were both under the supervision of the Secretary of State. These were the Colonisation Commissioners for South Australia, established under an Act of 1834, and the Agent General for Emigration, appointed in 1837. The new commission dealt with grants of land, the outward movement of settlers, the administration of the Passengers' Acts of 1855 and 1863 and, from 1846 to 1859, the scrutiny of colonial legislation. In 1855 it became the Emigration Commission. In 1873 the administration of the Passengers' Acts was transferred to the Board of Trade. The commission's powers were gradually given up to the larger colonies as they obtained self-government, and after 1873 its only duties were the control of the importation of Indian indentured labour into sugar-producing colonies and it was abolished in 1878.
Theme(s) Ships and Shipping Lines; Religion, Ethnic Identity and Community Relations; Politics, Legislation and Governance
Country (from) India; China
Country (to) Mauritius; South Africa; West Indies; Jamaica; St Vincent
Places Trinidad; Madras, Calcutta, India; Natal; Demerara, British Guiana; Honduras; England; St Lucia; Grenada
Nationality Chinese; Indian; Asian; English; European; French
Ships Philosopher; Adamant; Light of the Age; Clarence; Earl Russell; Sydenham; Belvidere; India; Salisbury; Hornet; Devonshire; Clive; Atalanta; Poonah; Indus; Ganges; Queen of the East; Bucton Castle
People Walcott, Stephen; Cooper, R B; Anderson, W M; Sampson, Theo; Crosby, James; Marriott, H
Keywords indentured labour, emigration, forced migration, shipping, children, demographics, charter, provisions, clothing, surgeon, journey conditions, weather, women, female emigration, emigrant selection, telegram, murder, finance, expenditure, allotments, law, return passage, contract, government, freight, racism
Language English
Copyright Crown Copyright documents © are reproduced by permission of The National Archives London, UK