The full content of this document is only available to subscribing institutions. More information can be found via

Title Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1884. Volume 1. Eastern and Australian Despatches
Date 9 Feb 1884 - 6 Mar 1885
Document Type Correspondence; Manuscript
Reference CO 384/148
Library / Archive The National Archives
Collection Name War and Colonial Department and Colonial Office: Emigration Original Correspondence.
Description Despatches from the Governors and colonial staff in the Australian and Asian Colonies to the Secretary of State for the Colonies. The correspondence deals generally with the movement of labour around the Colonies, particularly with securing Indian labourers and administering their remigration or settlement, and the introduction of Chinese workers to American and African colonies. These letters also discuss new and amended legislation governing immigration, and general administration such as staff appointments, salaries and pensions.
Series Description This series contains correspondence relating to British settlement in North America and Australasia, and to Indian indentured labour in the West Indies. Until 1857 it consists of domestic letters alone. The series then ceases and is not resumed until 1872.
Biographical Note / History A Colonial Land and Emigration Commission was created in 1840 to undertake the duties of two earlier and overlapping authorities under the supervision of the secretary of state: the Colonisation Commissioners for South Australia and the Agent General for Emigration. In 1855 it became the Emigration Commission. The commission's powers were gradually given up to the larger colonies as they obtained self-government, and after 1873 it was responsible only for controlling the importation of Indian labour into sugar-producing colonies. It was abolished in 1878 and an Emigration Department was then set up in the Colonial Office. This department was merged with the General Department in 1894, and abolished altogether in 1896.
Theme(s) Politics, Legislation and Governance; Departures: Port Conditions and Organisation
Country (from) China; Germany; Jamaica; St Lucia; India; Trinidad; British Guiana
Country (to) Gambia; Mexico; Peru; Fiji; Australia; United States of America; Singapore; Malaysia; Canada; Indonesia; New Zealand; Mauritius; Jamaica; St Lucia; India; Trinidad; British Guiana
Places Honolulu, Hawaii, San Francisco, California, Portland, Oregon, United States; Victoria, British Columbia, Canada; Johor, Penang, Malaysia; Sumatra, Jakarta, Indonesia; Brisbane, Cooktown, Rockhampton, Thursday Island, Queensland, West Australia, Melbourne, Adelaide, Port Darwin, South Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Shantou, China; Flacq, Mauritius; Demerara, British Guiana; Dunedin, Wellington, New Zealand; Bombay, Pondicherry, India
Ports Calcutta, Madras, India; Port Louis, Mauritius; Hong Kong, China
Nationality Polynesian; Chinese; Indian; German; English
Ships Chetah; Syria; City of Tokio; City of Rio de Janeiro; Arabic; Duburg; Gluckbürg; Picciola; Prinz Alexander; Merchantman; County of Berwick; Mofussilite; John Allan; Shah Jehan; Rajah of Cochin; Erato; Adria; Glenesk; Choice; Clan Fraser; Anerley; Taymouth Castle; Eastbourne; Epervier; John Davie; Emile de Girardin; Maurice and Réunion; Sultany; Ta Lee; Reinbeck; Duart Castle; May Queen; Argo; Sophia Joachim; Victorine; Turquoise; Daisy Morris; Kedron; Salazie; Hindoustan; Sir Lancelot; Calleron; Woodside; Yarra; Cilaos; British Sceptre; Governor Wilmot; Maha Vajirunhis; M. Meanatchy; Kongsee; Chilka; Shahzada; Peshwa; Nutter Wooly; Danaletchuny; Packiletchuny; M. Sundurum; Hyder Ally; Henzada; Neelayatchi
People Wingfield, Edward; Earl of Derby (Smith-Stanley, Sir Edward); Herbert, Sir Robert George Wyndham; Ashley, Evelyn; Hennessy, Sir John Pope; Firth, H. A.; Musgrave, Anthony; Des Voeux, Sir George William; Smith, Cecil Clementi
Keywords anti-Chinese immigration, land, land grants, wages, labour laws, Indian Immigration Act, Indian Emigration Act, plantation, plantation conditions, journey conditions, murder, execution, shipwreck, mortality rate, sugar, quarantine, labour, labourers
Additional Information The following foliated pages were not captured as they were blank: Folio 244 / 254 / 773. Foliated pages 421 and 422 missing in the original.
Language English; Arabic; French
Document(s) linked to Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1884. Volume 2. British Guiana and Trinidad Despatches
Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1884. Volume 3. Jamaica and Windward Islands Despatches
Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1884. Volume 4. Correspondence, Original, Secretary of State. Despatches: Leeward Islands and Miscellaneous. Foreign Office
Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1884. Volume 5. Offices, Companies and Crown Agents
Emigration (and Coolie Immigration), 1884. Volume 6. Agents (Except Crown Agents), Individuals and Surgeons
Copyright Crown Copyright documents © are reproduced by permission of The National Archives London, UK